El avance de la vacunación a nivel mundial durante el segundo semestre de 2021 y la relajación de las restricciones ha permitido que el ritmo de recuperación económica se haya intensificado. Para España, desde Equipo Económico (Ee), consideramos que el aumento del PIB podría alcanzar el 6,3% en 2021 y el 4,9% en 2022. A pesar de la fortaleza del crecimiento esperado en el corto plazo, la erosión de la estructura económica a consecuencia de la crisis dificultará que el volumen de actividad alcance los niveles de PIB potencial anteriores a la pandemia.
Presentamos en este post los avances más relevantes respecto a la muy esperada implementación del Plan español de Recuperación, Transformación y Resiliencia, como parte de la respuesta europea a la crisis a través de los cuantiosos fondos europeos de recuperación. Analizamos particularmente las oportunidades que pueden presentarse desde la perspectiva empresarial. La última información oficial disponible permite hacerse una mejor idea de la tipología de proyectos que se van a financiar y los potenciales beneficiarios.
The commercial debt of the Public Administrations vis-à-vis the private sector grew up to 83,356 million euros in 2020, the highest level in the last nine years. In order to avoid that the imbalance in public accounts leads, once again, to become an aggravating factor for the strangulation of liquidity and business solvency, weakened after months of activity paralysis, it is relevant to analyze the situation of pending obligations payment of the Administration against the private sector. Given the current imbalance in public accounts, which will be extended in the coming years, it is necessary to demand payment of invoices from suppliers in a timely manner.
The recently approved new line of direct, non-reimbursable financial assistance to companies and the self-employed affected by the crisis has an endowment of 7 billion euros. However, the availability of this aid only for certain sectors and the absence of clear and adequate eligibility criteria for them, have led to a significant number of companies being excluded from it. Within its parliamentary procedure framework, there is still room to seek to extend support to all sectors and companies that have also been affected by the crisis.
In recent weeks we have been observing an apparently contradictory behaviour of the financial system, in which increases in the stock price concur with main banking entities restructuring processes. But if we analyze it in depth, we will conclude that both processes are closely linked. It is precisely the strategic decisions taken by Spanish banks, of consolidation, cost savings and investment in digitalization, which the market is evaluating positively. Only this way this long period of deterioration in the financial margin can be overcome, pending a recovery in rates and in demand for credit that is not yet in sight on the economic horizon.
2021 will be the starting point of the global economic comeback, which will be uneven across regions and sectors. In the latest edition of our report “Ee SPAIN OUTLOOK for Business Strategy” at Equipo Económico (Ee) we foresee that over 2021 and 2022 we will witness an incomplete economic recovery, with a rebound for the Spanish GDP set around 6.5% and 3.2%, respectively. From 2023 on, growth will converge towards a muted potential rate. There is a need in the short term to provide a clear support to businesses. At the same time, profiting from the new European funds, it is time to push forward long delayed structural reforms.
The new European funds come as a clear opportunity in order to boost the recovery. Despite the fact that the timeline for its implementation continues to expand, so its effective reception will be delayed until well entered the second half of 2021, certain recent advances taken place both in Brussels and at the national level stand out. Several ministries continue to launch public consultations calls to identify projects that would be financed with the new funds.
The world and Spanish economies continue to face an unprecedented crisis in recent history. At Equipo Economico, we estimate that Spanish GDP will have experienced a drop close to 12% in 2020, and that we will witness a partial recovery of the economy in the next two years with annual growth rates of 6.8% and 2.6%, respectively. However, the recovery that we pose in our next year’s forecast has a certain artificial character, insofar as it depends directly on the continuation of the short-term effects of expansionary economic policies. We will have to wait for the “veil” created by these policies and other measures adopted to face the crisis to disappear, in order to certainly determine the profound structural change that is actually taking place.
The analysis of the 2021 Budgetary Plan sent to Brussels by the Spanish Government leads us to affirm that public income will hardly reach the expected increase next year. In addition, by not insisting on the necessary search for the efficiency in public spending, everything indicates that public deficits for 2020 and 2021 will be higher than official forecasts. However, it is through the achievement of solid macroeconomic and budgetary fundamentals, opening up to the outside world and undertaking structural reforms, that the Spanish economy will overcome the current crisis, as it has done so on previous occasions.
The world economy continues to tackle the severe crisis caused by Covid-19. The pandemic has plummeted the Spanish economy harder than the rest of its European partners. The recovery of activity in the weeks following the end of the confinement has not shown the expected drive during the summer. Against this backdrop, Equipo Económico (Ee) has revised its GDP forecast for this year two points downwards, when the drop in GDP will reach -12.0%. The degree of success and effectiveness of economic policy will very much determine the strength of the recovery.
After the sharp deterioration that the sector has suffered during the months of the state of alarm, with air transport in Spain registering a decrease of over 80%, flights and passenger traffic have been reactivated from the beginning of June, although reaching levels still much lower than in 2019.
The months of June and July are usually used by drivers to prepare their vehicles for summer journeys. July is the Corporate Tax´s month, as the vast majority of companies file their returns in this month. This month of July has seen a major ruling by the Constitutional Court, which may have more consequences than those initially derived from the declaration of unconstitutionality it contains. For all these reasons, and in the same way that we are paying attention to our car, I believe that the time has come to stop and carry out a small review of the state of our Corporation Tax. Let's take step by step.
At Equipo Economico we maintain, at the moment, our estimated contraction of the Spanish GDP of, at least, 10% in 2020. In 2021, the economy pickup would allow it to grow at 7.2%, although this will be insufficient to reach previous annual levels of growth and employment. The implementation of an adequate economic policy is urgent to overcome the challenges posed by the depth of the crisis in Spain and strengthen recovery.
The real estate sector is proving to be one of the most affected by the Covid-19 crisis in Spain. The framework of uncertainty around the virus, together with poor economic prospects and the impact on the labor market are delaying investment decisions. All of the above forecast that the diminishing demand for residential housing will continue in the coming months. On the other hand, the medical origin of this crisis, as well as its exceptional nature, could be causing a change in the tastes and preferences of consumers, who now place a higher value in space and light, to the detriment of location.
The world economy is being strongly affected by the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. The necessary search for the containment of the progression of the disease has led to a general disruption of the economic activity, including Spain. In this context, we expect the contraction of Spanish GDP to reach 10% in 2020. The impact of the crisis will be heterogeneous at the sectorial level. In order to recover from this crisis, the needs of the productive network must be considered with the utmost care, since they represent the main generator of employment.
We have been homebound due to the declaration of the state of alarm since March 14th, which entails restrictions on the rights and guarantees laid down in the, mainly with regard the freedom of movement.
This situation is duly proportionate to the significant public health risks that have resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic. And, for this reason, it has been assumed with calm and resignation by the citizens, who are setting an example of solidarity and civility.
We are currently suffering from a historical health crisis with very important economic repercussions. On Friday the Governor of the Bank of Spain referred to this situation as an "unprecedented disturbance". It is therefore necessary and pressing to adopt public policies that, initially, mitigate the impact, and later allow the economy to be restarted as soon as possible.
Since the 2012 labor reform, the Spanish business environment has been better adapted to market needs and technological changes, with a positive net effect on the level of employment.
In Spain, the economy is growing well below previous years, but it will still close 2019 with an annual GDP increase of 2.0% and above the Eurozone average. We expect growth to stabilize in 2021 towards its long-term potential rate, at 1.5%. Nevertheless, domestic and international risks threaten this baseline scenario. Therefore, there is a clear need to guarantee a framework of certainty and economic reforms that generate activity. This is confronted, however, by the current political reality.
Despite the slowdown in the global economy, the most important indicators of the Spanish economy confirm prolongation of the expansive phase. At Equipo Económico we foresee an increase in GDP of 2.4% in 2019 and 2.1% in 2020. Inertia in activity continues to be sustained in the reforms implemented in previous years, and again in the historical minimum interest rates.
There will still be a bit more waiting, who knows if until next October 31st, to be certain of how the United Kingdom will leave the European Union (EU). Only then there will be enough information enabling us to analyze what real effects Brexit will have. At the moment, announcements related to future tariff policies in case of a no deal situation, together with the analysis of the current commercial patterns between Spain and the United Kingdom, allow us to identify the automotive sector as one of the potentially most affected. However, the effects are not homogeneous throughout the Spanish Regions. Thus, the production and, therefore, the employment level of the automotive sector in Aragon, Navarra and Castilla y Leon show a greater degree of exposure to the British market than other regions.
The case of Italy in the last year, and of other countries in the past, show the negative effect that the wrong economic policy messages can have. The Spanish economy continues to grow noticeably above the Eurozone average. However, it is immersed in a different phase of the economic cycle with lower expansion rates. The design of economic policy plays a determining role in the economy’s cyclic performance. Yet the uncertainty generated by numerous economic policy messages, at the national and regional level, has resulted in a significant drop in the number of car registrations in Spain in the last few months.
The increase and materialization of certain risks for global growth throughout 2018 have worsened the outlook for the coming years. In Europe, Brexit will continue to represent the main political risk facing the region during 2019. The business strategies to deal with it necessarily differ depending on the considered scenario. Among them, the possibility of a hard Brexit in 100 days must be accounted for.
The Spanish economy is immersed in a downturn phase of the expansive economic cycle, with more moderate variation rates. According to estimates in Equipo Economico, GDP will grow 2.6% in 2018 and 2.2% in 2019. These figures mean a downward revision with respect to our previous estimates, as a result of the change in external tail winds, lack of economic reforms since 2016 and the uncertainty generated in the last months by the messages on economic, budgetary and fiscal matters.
Spain’s economic growth has continued to show notable dynamism in the first semester 2018, clearly above the European average. It moves forward along the same lines as the global product. However, we also observe the growing divergence occurring as the year goes on between the robust economic data and the greater uncertainty arising from an increased risk, both for the global economy and Spain.
The Spanish economy is still undergoing intense and differential economic growth regarding the euro area. In addition, it is progressing with a more solid basis than previous periods of growth. However, the scenario we consider for the Spanish economy is now subject to upside risks, both inside and outside Spain.
Spanish Regional Governments are clearly benefiting from the intense economic growth of the national economy. However, there has been a very important increase in the regional debt over the last years. In this context, the Extraordinary Liquidity Mechanisms (ELM) have gained great importance in the share they represent of the regional debt. We now expect the return of the regions to the markets to finance their debts and the improvement of their debt-to-GDP ratio.
The Spanish economy have started the year 2018 with strong inertia. The most recent indicators point to the fact that consumption growth has accelerated in the first quarter of 2018. In this way, GDP growth will again be supported by the strength of household consumption, deemed to increase by 2.3% this year and 2.1% next year. Several factors will continue to support positive consumption data in the coming months. In this scenario, we estimate consumption will only reach its pre-crisis levels in the second quarter of 2019, leaving room for recovery.
The Spanish economy has started this year 2018 with a strong inertia in its advance rate, which takes Equipo Económico to maintain our forecast for last December to a GDP increase of 2.8% in 2018. We estimate that this growth will also spread up during 2019, with an increase of 2.4% in GDP. The main risks in this positive scenario are political, associated with populist movements inside and outside of Spain.
In 2017 there was an increase in vehicle sales in Spain compared to previous year but at lower rates, once again revealing that it is still upwards compared to the historical figures of 2007. Regarding exports, the fall in sales to the United Kingdom reflects a new negative effect because of the Brexit.
In an auspicious international context, from Equipo Economico we foresee that Spanish GDP will continue to move forward in 2018 at an annual rate of 2.8%. The Spanish economy is currently benefiting from the expansive cycle initiated after the deep crisis, thanks to the economic reforms undertaken, and despite the impact of the increase in uncertainty associated with the situation in Catalonia.
Although hotel industry has been encouraged by excellent tourism data, is it really benefiting to its full potential? There is a negative trend in hotel supply in relation to the number of visitors. The irruption of alternative business models that offers tourist accommodation, such as technological platforms of collaborative economy between private individuals together with the new patterns of consumption of tourists, have led to the emergence of a new and important competitor.
Within a more encouraging international scenario, the Spanish economic growth has outperformed the most optimistic forecasts throughout 2017. In Equipo Económico we estimate that the Spanish economy will continue growing vigorously, at a 3.3% GDP. The momentum created during this year will sustain the growth rate throughout 2018, maintaining it near a 3% GDP. We therefore estimate a growth of 2.8% GDP for the coming year.
After the lengthy period experienced by the Spanish economy since the end of 2013 with a moderate and even negative performance of prices, with a fall in prices of 1.1% posted in April 2016, the year-on-year Consumer Price Index (CPI) in January and in February was 3%, which implied a significant acceleration in price increases. This is largely due to the energy component of the CPI, which will gradually moderate as the year progresses, closing 2017 with average inflation of 2.2, according to estimates by Equipo Económico. This return of inflation, however, has not been risk free.
The real estate market in Spain is in a bullish mood and continues steadily on the path of recovery and sustainable growth, after having undergone an important adjustment in the last decade, both in terms of volume and prices. Thus, during the past year, home sales experienced growth of 13.6% to attain 403,866 transactions, making three consecutive years of upward trend. The challenge facing the real estate sector is, in any case, twofold: stabilizing the sector and avoiding the mistakes and excesses committed in the past. Therefore, recovery must be prudent, sustained and gradual throughout 2017.
The Spanish economy is closing 2016 growing by 3.2% in terms of GDP to position itself regarding the Euro area in terms of economic growth, job creation and boost in exports. For 2017 we foresee GDP will grow 2.7%, thanks to the strength with which the year is commencing. Nonetheless, in a less favorable global context progress must be made on reforms; we must not return to those implemented in the last few years.